Main contents

1、新着論文 2、論文概説 3、コラム 4、本のレビュー 5、雑記(PC・研究関連)
6、気になった一文集(日本語English) 7、日記(日本語English




given ..., it is unlikely that ...

In general ... would lead to ...
In general slower growth would lead to a disadvantage for i.e. bivalves
[Hendriks et al., 201x, ECSS]

X have the capacity to record Y
S. durum rhodoliths also have the capacity to record the regional climate pattern in the tropical Pacific.
紅藻類(S. durum)もまた太平洋熱帯域の地域的な気候パターンを記録している可能性がある。
[Darrenougue et al., 2014, GCA]

X have the potential to …
S. durum rhodoliths have the potential to compare favourably with corals in terms of SST reconstruction
紅藻類(S. durum)は海洋表層水温復元という点ではサンゴよりも優れている可能性を秘めている
[Darrenougue et al., 2014, GCA]

… than previously thought
corals and coral reefs may be significantly more vulnerable to ocean acidification than previously thought.
[Cohen & Holcomb, 2009, Oceanography]

Our ability to X is limited by an inadequate understanding of Y
Our ability to model or predict changes in marine-based glaciers or ice sheets due to warming temperatures or rising sea level is limited by an inadequate understanding of the character of ice shelf/ice sheet grounding zone systems.
[Rebesco et al., 2014, Science]

・X is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understand Y
The circulation of the deep ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understand past variations in CO2 and glacial-to-interglacial cycles more generally.
[Adkins, IODP Exp.361 APL]

・by analogy with …
However, by analogy with the modern Pacific equatorial upwelling system…
[Gavin & Sexton, 2014, Geology]

・Accepting X as correct, I (we) derive Y.
Accepting the Mg/Ca based SST estimates as correct we derive δ18Osw as a first order salinity estimation.
[Martinez Mendez, 2010, Paleoceanography]

・focus on A, highlighting Y in particular
In this Review, we focus on the past decade of research on the Agulhas system, highlighting its potential global climate impacts in particular.
[Beal et al., 2011, Nature]

・regardless of whether
The study, published in Nature Climate Change, found that elevated CO2 levels affected fish regardless of whether their parents had also experienced the same environment.
Nature Climate Changeにて公表されたこの研究は、親が同じ環境を経験したかどうかによらずCO2濃度上昇が魚に影響することを発見した。

・keep in water with different CO2 levels
Spiny damselfish were kept in water with different CO2 levels for several months.
Spiny damselfish(スズメダイの一種)は数ヶ月の間異なるCO2濃度(の海水)に維持された。
[Fish failing to adapt to rising carbon dioxide levels in ocean]

・lend partial support to this mechanism.
Such an overshoot in CO2 is not recorded at the Bølling onset at WDC, but smaller overshoots at 11.7 and 16.3 kyr ago do lend partial support to this mechanism.
[Marcoitt et al., 2014, Nature]

・X has not been demonstrated outside of the laboratory
However, the impact of OA on coral reef bioerosion has not been unequivocally demonstrated outside of the laboratory because in the tropical oceans, low ΩArag generally covaries with elevated nutrients, and high nutrient concentrations can drive high rates of coral bioerosion in the absence of acidification.
[De Carlo et al., in press, Geology]

・To our knowledge X is not available
 To our knowledge such specific data are presently not available.
[Honisch et al., 2004, GCA]

・To this end / To attain the purpose / For this purpose
To this end, we performed a suite of inorganic calcite precipitation experiments (...)
[Uchikawa et al., in press, GCA]

・to date / up until now / so far

・If correct, this supports the view that ...
If correct, this supports the view that only borate ion, B(OH)4- is taken up by carbonate minerals from aqueous solutions.
[Klochko et al., 2009, GCA]

・the observation that ... are difficult to reconcile with X.
the observation that aragonite is consistently enriched in 11B relative to calcite over a range of pH are difficult to reconcile with the NMR results.
[Klochko et al., 2009, GCA]

・The likely mechanism behind X is seen in the observation that ...
The likely mechanism behind this constancy in 11-10KB is seen in the observation that boron fractionations into the four coordinate sites of B(OH)4- and B3O3(OH)4- are very similar.
この11-10KB が一定であるという事実を説明できるもっともなメカニズムは、B(OH)4- とB3O3(OH)4- の4配位サイトへのホウ素の同位体分別が非常に似通っているという観測に見ることができる。
[Klochko et al., 2006, EPSL]

・Further discussion below focuses on X, although recognizing that Y is also important (is of importance).
Further discussion below focuses on the more sensitive taxa, corals, echinoderms and molluscs, although recognizing that the responses of benthic plants and microbes can also be of high ecological importance.
[Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2014]

・This explanation is just one of many possibilities.
This explanation is just one of many possibilities, and the interplay among variations in proton removal rate, calcification rate, and the ionic composition of the SCM is an important area for future research.
この説明は多くの可能性の中の一つに過ぎず、水素イオンの除去速度・石灰化速度・ SCMのイオン組成間の相互作用は将来の研究の重要なテーマである。
[Venn et al., 2013, PNAS]

・The current data are a starting point for further investigation into X.
The current data are a starting point for further investigation into the scope for acclimation to elevated pCO2 and reduced pH in both S. pistillata and other reef corals.
本研究のデータは、上昇したpCO2と低下したpHに対するS. pistillataや他の造礁サンゴの順化の余地をさらに研究する上での出発点となるものである。
[Venn et al., 2013, PNAS]

・another priority area of research should concern X.
another priority area of research should concern the role of variation in photosynthetic rate of the corals symbiotic algae in shaping the response of pHSCM and pHCE to seawater acidification.
[Venn et al., 2013, PNAS]

・the paucity of our understanding of X means that Y continue to be essential.
the paucity of our understanding of coral physiology means that carefully controlled laboratory studies continue to be essential to revealing the basics of how shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry and pH act on the physiological processes behind coral biomineralization.
[Venn et al., 2013, PNAS]

・Bearing in mind these caveats, our data nevertheless suggest that ...
Bearing in mind these caveats, our data nevertheless suggest that tropical coral reefs with high coral cover can still exist at seawater pH of 7.8 (750 ppm pCO2 , 150 μmol/kg, carbonate ions or Ωarag 2.5), albeit with severe losses in biodiversity, structural complexity and resilience.
こうした限界を頭に入れておいてもなお、我々のデータは「生物多様性・構造的な複雑さ・回復度が著しく失われても、熱帯域のサンゴ礁はpHが7.8(pCO2は750 ppm、炭酸イオン濃度は150 μmol/kg、アラゴナイト飽和度は2.5)という状態においてもなお高いサンゴの被覆度で存在できる」ということを示唆するものである。
[Fabricius et al., 2011, NCC]

・X is probably a consequence of Y.
This decline in coral growth rates is probably a consequence of the impact of thermal stress on the coral host–symbiont relationship.
[Cantin et al., 2010, Science]

・Extrapolating our empirically derived relationship, we expect that ...
経験的に導出した関係を外挿すると、... のようになることが予想される
Extrapolating our empirically derived coral growth–SST relationship, we expect that D. heliopora will cease calcifying altogether by 2070, when summer SSTs will exceed current summer values by 1.85°C.
我々が経験的に導出したサンゴの成長とSSTの関係を外挿すると、D. helioporaは夏のSSTが現在の夏の値を1.85°C上回ることになる2070年までに石灰化を完全に停止することが予想される。
[Cantin et al., 2010, Science]

・the data in hand suggest that without X, Y will most certainly result in Z.
the data in hand suggest that without immediate, aggressive global intervention to reduce carbon emissions below IPCC A1B and A2 scenarios, the pressures of predicted annual heat stress will most certainly result in further deterioration of coral health in the central Red Sea over this century.
[Cantin et al., 2010, Science]

・Although X is rare, the few available data compare well to Y.
Although subsurface temperature measurements are very rare and temporally inconsistent, the few available data compare well to the SSTs at the same locality.
[Schone et al., 2004, PALAEO3]

・..., although precise details of X is unknown.
Our B coordination data adhere to this crystal structure-coordination link, revealing trigonal B in foraminiferal calcite, although precise details of this structure-coordination link are unknown.
[Blanson et al., 2015, EPSL]

X probably plays little, if any, role in ~ing
(...) salinity probably plays little, if any, role in regulating clam growth in this system.
[Henry & Nixon, 2008, Estuaries and Coasts]

・A similar conclusion was also reached by X
A similar conclusion was also reached by Pratt (1953) and Pratt and Campbell (1956), who determined that most annual growth actually occurred by mid-July.
同じ結論がPratt (1953)とPratt and Campbell (1956)によって導かれており、ほとんどの年間成長が実際に7月半ばに起きたことを決定している。
[Jones et al., 1989, Marine Biology]

・X is the major factor controlling Y
(...) it is suggested that the thermal effluent rather than the substrate is the major factor controlling growth rates in Mercenaria at these areas.
[Kennish & Olsson, 1975]

・sports are spaced ** um apart
スポット間隔は** umずつ
Analyses followed line-transects and single spots were spaced ~30–50 μm apart.
[Wall et al., 2015, BG]

no notable difference between A and B can be detected
At the macromorphological level, i.e. the arrangement of the main skeleton entities (EMZ and fibres), no notable difference between the natural and high pCO2 sample can be detected.
[Wall et al., 2015, BG]

・The reason for X is still uncertain, but we are beginning to understand Y
The reason for this weak rainfall response in the model is still uncertain, but we are beginning to understand the teleconnections between North Atlantic SST forcing and the South Asian summer monsoon.
[Mohtadi et al., 2016, Nature]

・X was collected and sacrificed for science
This specimen was collected and sacrificed for science on 9 July 1987 during low tide in evening hours.
[Schöne & Krause Jr., 2016, GPC]

・X was extremely cost- and/or time-prohibitive. Only in recent years have such techniques become readily available
However, such high-resolution analyses were extremely cost- and/or time-prohibitive in the past, if they were possible at all. Only in recent years have such techniques become readily available.
[Schöne & Krause Jr., 2016, Global and Planetary Change]

X is never possible without the contribution of Y and Z.
the AMS analyses are never possible without the contribution of ** and **.
[McNichol et al., 1994, Radiocarbon]