Main contents


☆主なコンテンツ
1、新着論文 2、論文概説 3、コラム 4、本のレビュー 5、雑記(PC・研究関連)
6、気になった一文集(日本語English) 7、日記(日本語English

2016年4月20日水曜日

気になった一文集(English ver. No. 27)

We know that any deal emerging from the Paris conference will not solve the problem. Even if nations follow through on the climate pledges that have been made so far, global emissions are projected to rise until at least 2030, and temperatures could reach 2 °C above pre-industrial levels as early as 2032. The UN has set the goal of limiting any rise to 2 °C, but even this increase would not protect the world’s most vulnerable citizens from rising tides, extreme weather and shifting precipitation patterns.

If humans want to keep living on a planet that looks, feels and functions like the one we live on now, it is time to sign an agreement and get to work.

The way forward is through ParisNature 527, 409 (26 November 2015)

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

A reasonable chance of attaining 2 °C translates to a finite global carbon budget of about 900 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide from 2015 onward that must be shared in a fair way between all nations.

Renewable energy systems compete even at low oil prices, which in turn closes the door on unconventional, expensive oil, such as offshore oil and exploitation in difficult environments such as the Arctic.

We need an agreement that is good enough to tip the world decisively towards rapid decarbonization. A new treaty does not need to force nations into compliance, but rather should create confidence and send the right signal — to investors, businesses and societies at large — that the global political leadership is turning irrevocably towards a new sustainable era.

To meet the 2 °C limit, the world must cut carbon emissions at about 6% per year.

A ‘perfect’ agreement in Paris is not essentialNature 527, 411 (26 November 2015)

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

The analysis also showed that with warmer waters or increased acidification or both, there would be deleterious impacts on habitat-forming species for example coral, oysters and mussels. Any slight change in the health of habitats would have a broad impact on a wide range of species these reefs harbour.

Global marine analysis suggests food chain collapse」The University of Adelaide NEWS & EVENTS (13 Oct 2015)

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

The close correspondence between CO2 concentrations and major events in human history points to the fact that the world’s socioeconomic system left its mark on atmospheric CO2 concentrations centuries before the industrial revolution.

To what extent the fluctuations were caused by climatic variations or human activities continues to elude us.


Holocene carbon cycle: Climate or humans?Nature Geoscience 8, 335–336 (2015)

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

The ocean acidification community has done this well in a remarkably short time; the oxygen community has yet to step forward as a unified voice across all ocean realms.


Linking coasts and seas toaddress ocean deoxygenationNature Climate Change 5, 401–403 (2015)

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

Although most of the past emissions have come from wealthy nations, the bulk of those in the future will come from developing countries. Scientists have made it abundantly clear that every country must do everything that it can, and as fast as it can, if the world is to prevent the worst consequences of global warming.
過去の(二酸化炭素)排出のほとんどが豊かな国々からもたらされた一方で、将来の排出の大半は現在発展しつつある国々からもたらされる。もし世界が地球温暖化の最悪の結末を回避するつもりがあるのならば、全国家ができるすべてのことを、可能な限り早く、行動に移さなければならないことを科学者たちは再三明らかにしてきた。

Although countries agreed to engage in this new process, any action that they take to reduce emissions is on a purely voluntary basis. 
すべての国がこの新たなプロセスに協力することに同意したが、排出量を減らすためのいかなる行動も完全にボランティアの精神に依存している。

A seismic shiftNature 528, 307 (17 December 2015) ”EDITORIAL”

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

Climate change is a serious challenge because the atmosphere gives a free ride to countries that emit. If some nations sit back and rely on others’ efforts, the incentives for anyone to act are weakened.
大気は(二酸化炭素を)排出する国に対してタダ乗りの機会を与えるため、気候変化は解決しがたい課題である。もしある国が他の国の努力を傍観し、それ頼みにしたならば、誰もが行動を起こすというインセンティブは減じることになる。

Price carbon — I will if you willNature 526, 315–316 (15 October 2015) “COMMENT”

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

Any realistic pathway to a 1.5 °C world will probably require an initial overshoot beyond the temperature target and the subsequent removal of significant amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which may turn out to be unfeasible.
1.5 °C温暖化した世界へのいかなる現実な道筋も、はじめは地表気温が1.5 °Cを上回り、その後かなりの量の二酸化炭素を大気から除去すること(を通じて気温を下げること)を必要とするであろうが、それは実現可能性がかなり低いことがのちのち分かるだろう。

The risks for most impacts will be discernibly higher in a 2 °C world than at half a degree less.
2 °C温暖化が招く影響のリスクは1.5 °C温暖化によるものに比べ、目に見えて高いだろう。

An impossible task?Nature Geoscience 9, 181 (2016) “Editorial”

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

The climatic changes during the PETM occurred over longer time scales than those of anthropogenic climate change. The impacts of the latter may thus be even more severe.

However, the initial CO2 rise during the PETM took place over the course of a few millennia, about a factor of 10 slower than if humans burned the remaining fossil-fuel resources under a business-as-usual scenario.

What is clear, however, is that the large release of CO2 during the PETM transformed conditions on land and in the ocean in ways that affected the Earth system for more than 100,000 years and that might be considered catastrophic by many people today.

A heated mirror for future climateScience 352, 151–152 (08 Apr 2016)

〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜

Peer review is the backbone of modern science, and academic researchers are expected to participate in the endeavour. Although time consuming, delving deeply into someone else's paper can benefit a scientist's own work. The process allows peer reviewers to read about research before it is generally known and to gain insight into how other scientists write manuscripts and present data.

“Not only will it help you to hone your power of judgement,” she says, “but it is also a great way to broaden your knowledge and demonstrate transferable skills for offering an authoritative view to your peers”.

Peer review: Close inspectionNature 533, 279–281 (12 May 2016)