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2015年9月1日火曜日

気になった一文集(English ver. No. 26)

As the oceans become more acidic, tropical coral reefs, which provide revenue and food for 400 million people, will die.
海洋がより酸性的になるにつれて、4億人に対して収入と食料を提供している熱帯のサンゴ礁は死ぬことになる。

anthropogenic CO2 has widespread ramifications for numerous ecosystems, particularly coral reefs.
人為起源の二酸化炭素は数多くの生態系(特にサンゴ礁)に対して幅広い波及効果を持っている。

An Undersea Volcano Previews a Terrifying Future for the World’s Oceans

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Few people are aware that more than half the coral species known to science are found in deep-waters growing in chilly temperatures, and that spectacular reefs supporting a wealth of other marine life grow in the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean.

Live corals are standing on the shoulders of their dead parents and grandparents, and we see that ocean acidification can start to dissolve dead coral skeleton,” explains Dr Sebastian Hennige, lead author of the new study. “This makes them weaker and more brittle, like bones with osteoporosis, and means that they may not be able to support the large reefs above them in the future”.

“There is no scope for dead coral to adapt to ocean acidification. Our results strongly suggest that deep coral reef structures as we know them may be at serious risk of disappearance within our children’s lifetimes and the role these structures play in the ecosystem, providing habitat for thousands of other species, including places for sharks to lay their eggs, will be lost.”

Ocean acidification shakes the foundation of cold-water coral reefs

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unusually within fields of scientific study, ice-core scientists must find ways to preserve the object of their study for future researchers before it vanishes forever — by stepping up efforts to collect and store the ice.

“Time no longer starts at the surface,” says Lonnie Thompson, a palaeoclimatologist at the Byrd Polar Research Center at the Ohio State University in Columbus. He and his wife, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, have been collecting ice cores since the mid-1970s. He drilled an ice core from the Quelccaya ice cap in the Peruvian Andes in 1983, at which point no melting had occurred at altitudes above 5,000 metres. When he returned for another sample 20 years later, melting had altered the concentration of atmos-pheric isotopes in the top 40 metres of ice.

Climatology on thin iceNature Jobs 520, 395–397 (2015)

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To conclude, it is risky to pin the fate of the ocean and the planet solely on our ability to reduce GHG emissions without also actively fostering and objectively evaluating additional actions.
結論付けると、さらなる行動を積極的に促進し、客観的に評価することをせずに、海と地球の運命を人類が温室効果ガス排出を減らす能力にのみ託すことは危険である。

Emissions reduction is not enoughScience 349, 1459 (2015)

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The unfortunate truth is that taking steps to combat climate change is way down the political agenda, and that makes more aggressive action difficult. The real challenge is to raise public awareness about the risks of inaction — as well as the benefits of action — and to identify policies that can pass the political litmus test.

Much ground has been covered; the challenge now, for both researchers and the IPCC, is to adapt and to identify research that will help policymakers to bridge the gap between what they say they want to do and what they are actually doing.

A shift in climateNature 526, 293 (15 October 2015)

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And yet, says Cai, this year's El Niño — possibly a once-in-a-generation event — is a missed opportunity with respect to going out and documenting the breadth of physical, chemical and biological changes that might occur in the ocean. “It's a pity we can't have more ships at sea,” he says.

In recent months, it has been keeping pace with the most powerful El Niños on record, and westerly wind outbreaks in early October promised to keep the warming going. As a result, forecasters are warning many parts of the globe to prepare for some wild and crazy weather over the next several months.

Hunting the Godzilla El NiñoNature 526, 490–491 (22 October 2015)

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One of these is increases in cyclone intensity in the western Pacific. The increase is thought to result from a shift in the location where the storms form — warm central Pacific waters. The shift away from land means the storms have more time in open water to gain strength before making landfall.
そうした(あまり一般に馴染みのない気候変化の)影響の一つが西太平洋における台風の強さが増すことである。増加の原因は台風が形成される地域が、暖かい太平洋中央部へと変化していることにあると考えられている。形成域が陸から遠ざかるということは、上陸する前に外洋で強さを増す時間がより多くなるということを意味する。

The impacts on communities is difficult to predict and only time will tell how extreme the event will become. If anything, the last year and the false start have just reminded us that we still have a lot to learn about this planet of ours.
コミュニティーに対する影響を予想することは難しく、そのイベントが実際に起きて初めてどれほど異常なものであったのかが分かる。なんにせよ、去年ENSOの予測がうまくいかなかったことは、私たちは地球についてまだまだ学ぶべきことが多いということを思い出させてくれる。

The little boy and his changing faces」Nature Climate Change 5, 787 (2015)

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The world is awash with oil at the moment, and there is no need to rush any of it to market, let alone carbon-rich crude from Alberta’s tar sands.

But a symbolic one-off gesture from one government will not change the fundamental dynamic driving greenhouse-gas emissions. To do that, all countries must implement meaningful policies that will rush low-carbon technologies to market.

A breath of fresh airNature 527, 133 (12 November 2015)